# Physics Foundations Society

The Physics Foundations Society is a scientific association dedicated to the search for a deepened understanding of physical reality. Our work is primarily driven by our founders’ findings: Tuomo Suntola’s profound work ‘The Dynamic Universe’ which opens up a comprehensive framework for a holistic view of the universe – and Ari Lehto’s finding of a natural process for the generation of stable units from elementary particles to celestial structures. The new perspectives rely on primary laws of nature like the conservation of energy, harmonics and the balance of opposites – without compromising the vast empirical evidence produced by modern science.

# News

**International workshop Scientific models and a comprehensive picture of reality, Helsinki, May 20-21, 2016**

The Finnish Society for Natural Philosophy, together with The Physics Foundations Society, arranged a two-day workshop on the theme *Scientific models and a comprehensive picture of reality* held on May 20-21, 2016 at the House of Science and Letters in Helsinki. The workshop brought together recognized philosophers, physicists and cosmologists to discuss the scientific models and the challenge of making nature understandable. The workshop called for novel aspects of unifying theories and discusses the postulates, testability and the philosophical criteria of the theories. Link to Workshop program and presentations. Link to Speaker Introductions.

**Proton and neutron intrinsic structures**

The Planck energy can be calculated either from the conventional Planck mass or defined using the electron-positron pair rest energy. The latter gives extremely simple structures and accurate rest masses for the proton and the neutron indicating that the conventional Planck mass is a little off. PFS Seminar presentation 22.2.2016, Ari Lehto.

In the period doubling scenario the neutrino appears quite naturally from the neutron decay, and it seems to be an uncharged partner of an electron (or a positron) originating from the decay of an excited electron-positron pair.

**Mach's principle and gravitational waves**

In the DU framework, Mach’s principle gets a quantitative form as the work done against the global gravitational energy arising from all the mass in space. Gravitational interaction via the gravitational potential field is immediate; a mass object senses the local gravitational potential as gravitational energy, and the gradient of the local gravitational potential as gravitational force. In the DU framework, the source of gravitational waves is related to the rotation of the 4D angular momentum of the orbit due to periastron advance. Such a mechanism gives a precise prediction to the shortening of the period of double star orbits, but does not violate the instantaneous gravitational potential which is essential e.g. for the stability of the planetary system. See the presentation by Tuomo Suntola "Quantitative expression of Mach's principle" at "An Evening with Mach", March 8, 2016 by The Finnish Society for Natural Philosophy in Helsinki.

## The General Theory of Relativity 100 years

On November 10, 2015 The Finnish society for Natural Philosophy arranged a special event to celebrate the 100 years of the theory of general relativity. The program consisted of presentations on the status of astronomy at the time the theory was developed, the birth and the essence of the theory, and considerations of possible restructuring of the theory if today’s instruments, knowledge and observations had been available to Einstein.

Link to the program and presentations

## Elementary particle classification

August 2015 - Ari Lehto, one of the founders of the Physics Foundations Society, has introduced a period-based classification for the elementary particles. Starting from Planck units, the classification appears as a consequence of a period doubling mechanism, which is a universal property of nonlinear dynamical systems. By allowing 3 degrees of freedom for mass energy structures and 4 degrees of freedom for electromagnetic energy structures, the known elementary particles are ordered according to the total number of period doublings forming a system in full agreement with the classification given by the Standard Model of Elementary Particles. The model allows exact calculation of the rest energies of the known particles and there is no need for the quark hypothesis. It also proposes sites for possible particles still missing from the particle listing. - A preliminary presentation can be opened here.

# Recent Publications

## Tuomo Suntola, Ari Lehto, Tarja Kallio-Tamminen, Heikki Sipilä, Fundamental Concepts - from Force to Energy

International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Special Issue: Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 46-56. doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.16. Full PDF paper

This paper discusses the nature of reality on the bases of novel fundamental concepts arisen out of the Dynamic Universe theory and the period doubling mechanism presented in papers The Dynamic Universe – space as a spherically closed energy system by Tuomo Suntola [1], and On the Planck scale and properties of matter by Ari Lehto [2] in this issue. The Dynamic Universe model and the period doubling mechanism open a new perspective on the physical reality and the primary laws of nature. Such a reorientation challenges the bases of the existing theory structures. The fundamental change of paradigm stimulates a deep philosophical study of the basic assumptions and concepts. Antique metaphysics created great principles but met its limits with the lack of empiricism. The triumph of modern physics can be seen in our phenomenal technological progress but the main objective of a scientific theory – to make nature understandable – has not been met. A theory is not inherently correct or wrong but it describes chosen phenomena accurately or less accurately, widely in all circumstances or only in a limited sense. A theory may rely on philosophical ideas of the laws of nature, or it may discern the laws of nature via a mathematical description of observations. A comprehensive theory comprises clear philosophical bases with a minimal number of postulates, without compromising experimental evidence and testable predictions.

## Ari Lehto, On the Planck Scale and Properties of Matter

Special Issue: Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2015, pp. 57-65.doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.17. Full PDF paper

Period doubling, or a frequency halving sequence, is a common property of nonlinear dynamical systems. Period can be related to other physical quantities, e.g. length, energy and temperature, which obtain the corresponding doubling/halving behavior. It is found that physical properties of natural phenomena, systems and elementary particles can be derived directly from the Planck time, taken as the fundamental period. Analysis of experimental data suggests that the period doubling process takes place in three and four internal degrees of freedom. It is further found out that long term stability complies with the stability condition of nonlinear dynamical systems. A theory of period doubling in 1/*r*-type nonlinear systems with three and four internal degrees of freedom is presented.

## Tuomo Suntola, The Dynamic Universe – Space as a Spherically Closed Energy System

International Journal of Astrophysics and Space Science. Special Issue:Quantum Vacuum, Fundamental Arena of the Universe: Models, Applications and Perspectives. Vol. 2, No. 6-1, 2014, pp. 66-85. doi: 10.11648/j.ijass.s.2014020601.18 *Full PDF paper*

The Dynamic Universe model comprises a holistic view and detailed study of space as a spherically closed 3-dimensional energy system in a 4-dimensional universe. It is based on zero-energy balance of motion and gravitation of space as a 3D surface of a 4-sphere – contracting and expanding in the direction of the 4-radius. Such a dynamic solution shows the rest energy of mass in space as the energy of motion mass possesses due to the expansion. DU shows relativity as a consequence of the conservation of total energy and the zero-energy balance in interactions in space, and allows the derivation of physical and cosmological predictions in relatively simple mathematics – with no need to rely on kinematically derived coordinate transformations. The postulates DU employs do not include the principle of relativity, the equivalence principle, or assumptions about the constancy of the velocity of light. Yet, for local phenomena, including near space, DU predictions are essentially the same as the corresponding predictions given by the special and general theories of relativity. Cosmology predictions in DU fit with observations without the need to free parameters like mass density and dark energy used in Friedman-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology. The Dynamic Universe model offers plausible basis for philosophical considerations and leads to an intelligible picture of physical reality from quantum phenomena to the cosmological structure and development of space. The universe in this model presents itself as an intricately ordered whole where local structures and expressions of energy and matter are inseparably connected to the rest of space.

## More publications:

Ari Lehto: Elementary particles, Period doubling, Micromechanics, Sensors, …

Tarja Kallio-Tamminen: Philosophy of science, Quantum reality, Mind and consciousness, …

Heikki Sipilä: Gamma detectors, X-ray detectors, …

Tuomo Suntola: Dynamic Universe, History of Science, Philosophy of Science, ALD technology, Thin film devices, Renewable energy, Climate change …

# Books

**The Dynamic Universe, Toward a unified picture of physical reality**

Tuomo Suntola, Physics Foundations Society

*Third edition, April 2011, *ISBN 9781461027034 (paperback, 358 pages), ISBN 978-952-67236-5-5 (e-book)

Buy from Amazon: (US, UK, Germany), Buy from the Publisher (only in Finland)

The Dynamic Universe theory is a holistic description of the observable physical reality. Like the Copernican revolution, the DU creates a system perspective allowing straightforward mathematics and a conceivable cosmological picture of the universe — and gives very precise predictions to observables without dark energy or other artificial parameters. It is a unifying theory converting spacetime in variable coordinates into dynamic space in absolute coordinates. The Dynamic Universe theory relies on an overall zero-energy balance in space and the conservation of the total energy in interactions in space. Instead of relativity of an object to the observer, relativity in DU space means relativity of local to the whole — relativity appears as a measure of the locally available share of the total energy in space.

## The Short History of Science - or the long path to the union of metaphysics and empiricism

Tuomo Suntola, Physics Foundations Society

ISBN 978-952-68101-0-2 (paperback, 294 pages), ISBN 978-952-68101-1-9 (e- book, pdf)

Buy from Amazon: (US, UK, Germany), Buy from the Publisher (only in Finland)

The book traces the development of the scientific picture of reality from antiquity to the present day with special emphasis on the philosophical and theoretical choices made along the path. Also, the book studies the possibility of a re-evaluation the theoretical structures and the picture of reality with a closer connection between the philosophical and empirical aspects. Short biographies of more than one hundred key scientists are included as well as numerous references and links to primary sources.

**Tieteen lyhyt historia - vai pitkä tie luonnonfilosofian ja empirismin kohtaamiseen**

Tuomo Suntola, Physics Foundations Society

Toinen painos, ISBN 978-952-67236-8-6 (nidottu, 290 sivua), ISBN 978-952-67236-9-3 (e-book, pdf)

Saatavissa tilaustuotteena kirjakaupoista tai suoraan kustantajalta

Kirja jäljittää tieteellisen maailmankuvan kehityksen antiikista nykypäivään, keskittyen erityisesti filosofisiin ja teoreettisiin valintoihin, jotka matkan varrella on tehty. Kirjassa tarkastellaan myös mahdollisuutta teoriarakenteiden ja todellisuuskuvan uudelleenarviointiin filosofisia ja empiirisiä näkökulmia lähentäen. Kirjaan on sisällytetty yli sadan keskeisen tiedemiehen lyhyet elämäkerrat sekä lukuisia viitteitä ja linkkejä alkuperäiskirjoituksiin.